Water Treatment & Reuse

A Desalination Guide for South African Municipal Engineers (du Plessis et al., 2006)
The literature available in the public domain (libraries and internet) encapsulates a vast collection of handbooks, journal publications, research reports and conference proceedings on desalination and water treatment. Some of them are presented in the list of references at the end of this document. Unfortunately, in the execution of daily tasks and responsibilities, most municipal engineers seldom have the time to evaluate and digest all this information to make it applicable to a specific municipality’s water supply needs (Read more).
Feasibility study on the use of irrigation as part of a long-term acid mine water management strategy in the Vaal Basin (van der Laan et al., 2014)
Protecting the environment from contaminated mine water decanting in increasing volumes from the goldfields presents an enormous challenge, probably greater than that of coal mine water because the decant points are in urban areas. Some of the water is acidic but most of it is partly neutralised through water-rock interaction. The main limitation of the water is an undesirable concentration of sulfate salts and metals, chiefly iron, and to a lesser extent manganese, aluminium and various trace elements. This project addressed some of the possibilities of irrigating land and producing crops with the mine water, primarily after it has been neutralised with lime but also as a form of land treatment in which the raw mine water is applied to soils or mine tailings that have been preconditioned with slaked lime or limestone to achieve in situ neutralisation and sequestration of many of the contaminants. Supplementary treatments were also explored using aluminium sulfate and locally mined ferromanganese wad, currently used for uranium recovery in the gold mines (Read more).
Greywater reuse for toilet flushing in high-density urban buildings in South Africa: A pilot study (Ilemobade et al., 2012)
The broad concepts of greywater reuse for toilet flushing, and potential beneficiaries’ attitudes towards adopting greywater reuse for toilet flushing as one way of preserving/improving the environmental, are laudable. However, the experiences garnered from this study show that implementing greywater reuse for toilet flushing in South African high density urban buildings already supplied with municipal potable water, must be approached carefully. Implementation of greywater reuse systems for toilet flushing should only proceed after a rigorous evaluation and conclusion on several critical issues including: the availability of regulations or guidelines to which the reuse system would be accountable; consideration (on the part of both the implementing agency and beneficiaries) of the trade-offs between implementing low-technology, low-cost, high maintenance but minimum skill required, and low greywater quality reuse systems versus other greywater reuse system permutations; employing accredited greywater reuse systems; targeting the most appropriate end users i.e. young people and non-residential buildings; achieving economic viability based on a maximum payback period of 8 years; and the need for regular beneficiary awareness and engagement operations. A cursory evaluation of the above issues would likely result in the failure of such systems. (Read more)
Guiding municipalities towards adaptation amid projected climate change
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Reusedsm & Reusecost: Tools for the selection and costing of direct potable reuse systems for municipal wastewater (WRC, 2014)
The overall objective of this guide is to provide decision-makers with a decision-support model (DSM) for municipalities and water boards to identify, evaluate, compare, and select appropriate water reclamation and reuse options, REUSEDM, which can produce sufficient quantities of safe drinking water from available secondary treated wastewater sources. Because the cost of reuse schemes forms one of the main selection criteria, there was also a need to incorporate a more comprehensive reuse costing model to inform the development of the DSM. The guide therefore includes a reuse costing model, REUSECOST. (Read more)
Technical Brief: Decision support for municipal wastewater reuse (WRC, 2014)
A completed WRC-funded study has developed a decision-support tool for the selection and costing of direct potable reuse systems for municipal wastewater. (Read more)
Technical Brief: Greywater reuse for toilet flushing in high-density urban buildings in South Africa: A pilot study (WRC, 2013)
A WRC-funded study investigated dual grey and drinking water reticulation systems for high-density urban buildings in South Africa. (Read more)
Technical Brief: Reusing water for domestic purposes - A discussion document (WRC, 2014)
The WRC has published a discussion document for the water sector on implementation plans for the direct and indirect water-reuse for domestic purposes. (Read more)
Technical Brief: Water reuse using a dual-stage membrane bioreactor for industrial effluent treatment (WRC, 2014)
A WRC-funded project assessed the performance of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for the treatment of textile and paper mill effluent. (Read more)
Water Reclamation for Direct re-use in urban and industrial applications in South Africa and its projected impact upon water demand (Grobicki and Cohen, 1998)
In the past, investigations have centred upon treatment of sewage effluent to potable standard for reuse in the main water distribution system, as has been implemented in Windhoek, Namibia, since the 1960s. This report however focuses upon the use of water reclamation to meet non-potable requirements, since only a fraction of actual water consumption requires water of a potable standard. As well as conserving freshwater resources, this may also result in a considerable saving over time in terms of treatment costs, since the level of treatment is matched to the water quality requirement for a particular application. (Read more)
Water reuse using a dual-stage membrane bioreactor for industrial effluent treatment (Edwards et al., 2013)
This report presents the results and findings of Water Research Commission (WRC) project K5/1900 “Water Reuse using a Dual-Stage Membrane Bioreactor for Industrial Effluent Treatment”. In this study, the performance of membrane bioreactors (MBR) for the treatment of textile and paper mill effluent was assessed. The aims of this research project were to: 1. Design and construct a pilot scale dual-stage side-stream membrane bioreactor (dsMBR) plant (5-10 m3/d capacity).2. Retrofit and commission dsMBR pilot plants to treat trade industry sector effluents.3. Conduct an economic viability assessment of the dsMBR technology in the context of the Western Cape trade industry sector, its existing infrastructure and current treatment practices and paradigms.4. Facilitate capacity building for industrial application of MBR technology at the Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT) through the training of in-service trainees and postgraduate students. (Read more)
Water – precious resource to be used again, and again, and again... (Matthews, The Water Wheel, May/June 2015)
What do Beaufort West residents, Bill Gates and the International Space Station’s astronauts have in common? It sounds like the setup of a corny joke, but in all seriousness the answer is … they have all drunk ‘reclaimed’ water that has been produced by removing all the impurities in treated wastewater to ensure it meets drinking water quality standards (Read more).
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