Water Conservation & Water Demand Management

Guidelines for reducing water losses in South African municipalities (McKenzie, 2014)
The report consolidates many innovative research tools, products and studies which have been generated over the years at the WRC and elsewhere in response to the challenges associated with water loss management, as well as the a number of projects and implementation of water loss management in South Africa. Over this period there have been a number of world firsts which have been achieved in this subject field, to name a few: The South African water sector was amongst the first countries in the world to adopt the BABE processes and the IWA standard water balance. South Africa was the first to introduce advanced pressure control on a large-scale installation supplying almost 500 000 residents from a single installation  (Read more)
Ministerial Brief: The state of non-revenue water in South Africa (Bhagwan and McKenzie, 2012)
A recent study commissioned by the Water Research Commission (WRC) and the most comprehensive and detailed study of its type to date, estimated that the current level of non-revenue water for the country as a whole is 36.8%. At a nominal production cost of R4.50/m3, this loss represents approximately R 7.2 billion per annum (Read more).
Policy Brief - Standards for Municipal Invoices: Towards a consistent approach (Feb 2011)
The tax invoices or accounts that municipalities send out to consumers on a monthly basis are a key interface between local government and citizens. As such, municipal accounts offer a unique opportunity for municipalities to inform, educate and influence their customers and to establish communication which is clear, accurate and customer-friendly. (Read more)
Reducing water losses in Municipalities: Key issues and pointers to implementation (WRC, 2015)
This publication contains extracts from the Water Research Commission (WRC) Research Report entitled Guidelines for Reducing Water Losses in South African Municipalities (WRC TT 595/14) by R S McKenzie.The Guidelines are practical and extremely useful. They are based on work over a period of 20 years in about 20 countries. This document has a primary focus on section 2 of the Guidelines which provides a comprehensive and easy to understand overview of the key issues in reducing water losses in municipal water supply systems. It is intended to give decision makers, managers and implementers of water supply in municipalities a vision for dealing with water losses in cost effective and uncomplicated ways. You are strongly encouraged to access the full Guidelines to use in implementing water demand management. The full Guidelines have a number of Appendices to support its practical implementation. (Read more)
Technical Brief: Compendium of water conservation and water demand management interventions (WRC, 2013)
A completed WRC study has collected case studies relating to water conservation and water demand management (WC/WDM) interventions at the municipal level in South Africa. (Read more)
The State of Non-Revenue Water in South Africa (McKenzie, Siqalaba, and Wegelin, 2012)
This study builds on and follows on from the two previous assessments undertaken through the WRC. This study is the most comprehensive and detailed study of its type to date and expands on the knowledge acquired previously and through collaborative efforts with the DWA Regional Offices in the data gathering process. Data were gathered from 132 of the possible 237 municipalities throughout South Africa representing over 75% of the total Municipal water supply. From the analysis of the results, it was estimated that the current level of Non-Revenue Water for the country as a whole is 36.8%. This figure is similar to the estimated world average of 36.6% but is on the high side when compared to other developed countries and low when compared to other developing countries. The use of percentages is not recommended by the International Water Association when referring to water losses or leakage levels as they can often be misleading. (Read more)
The status and use of drinking water conservation and savings devices in the domestic and commercial environments in South Africa (Still et al., 2008)
This report is the result of a project carried out to explore the status of water efficient devices in the domestic and commercial environments in South Africa. For the purposes of this study commercial environments were limited to public institutions such as schools, prisons and hospitals as well as shopping complexes and the hospitality industry. This report does not include information on the use of water efficient devices in industrial settings. (Read more)
Water Conservation and Water Demand Management Strategy for the Water Services Sector (DWAF, 2004)
The management of water resources and the provision of water services in South Africa call for a new approach in which Water Conservation and Water Demand Management (WC/WDM) are expected to play a crucial role to ensure environmental sustainability, social equity and economic development. The National Water Act (Act 36 of 1998) and the Water Services Act (Act 108 of 1997) have provided an enabling environment for WC/WDM. Newly established institutions with roles and responsibilities are expected to integrate WC/WDM into their activities. This document, focusing on WC/WDM for the Water Services sector, is part of four documents which together, constitute the Water Conservation and Water Demand Management Strategy. It should be read in conjunction with the first of the four documents, the National Water Conservation and Demand Management Strategy (NWC/WDMS). This document outlines the applicable principles and definitions and spells out the eight generic objectives of the overall strategy. The remaining two sectoral strategy documents deal with:Agriculture industry, Mining and Power Generation. (Read more)
Water Loss: Are we wasting our way into a potential water crisis? (The Water Wheel, November/December 2014)
Experts at the Fourth Regional African Water Leakage Summit have warned that failure to adequately address non-revenue water and water losses in South Africa could have serious water security repercussions going into the future. (Read more)
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